Mots d'experts

Remote, from its origins to the employer brand

May 2022


Expert - Caroline Diard

Caroline Diard


Human Resources and Law - ESC Amiens

Remote appeared in the 1950s with the work of Norbert Wiener on cybernetics. In the 1970s, the term "telework" was coined by Jack Nilles to refer to work carried out partly at a distance from the office. It is then a question of substituting means of telecommunications for transport.

The first definition of telework was given in 1993 by Thierry Breton [1]. But there are several limiting factors: legal vacuum, technological limits, sociological and cultural brakes. The Warsmann law revived the issue of telework in 2012 by legally facilitating its implementation in companies through social dialogue. The Labor Code defines telework as "any form of work organization in which work which could also have been performed on the employer's premises is carried out by an employee outside these premises on a voluntary basis using ICT". . The National Interprofessional Agreement of November 26, 2020 for “successful implementation of teleworking” offers a regulatory framework facilitating teleworking as the usual mode of work provided for by an addendum to the contract.

The health crisis makes it possible to lift cultural and organizational locks. Before the crisis, telework presented benefits (reduction of transport times, delegation, development of autonomy, QVT) and risks (isolation, personal-professional life porosity, overload, loss of social ties) that the literature had identified. An exploratory quantitative study carried out between April 15 and May 11, 2020 (Diard, Hachard, Laroutis), with 169 respondents showed that 17.4% of respondents declared difficulties relating to their health in connection with work: disconnection 44.3%, work overload 40.1%, loss of social ties 32.9%, stress 32.3%. These difficulties are suggestive of PSR and the results reveal a negative impact on the perceived benevolence of management through several variables: pressure, late solicitations, almost non-existent relationship with the manager [2]. Among the risks identified in a telework situation, we note: psychosocial risks, managerial harassment [3], hyper-connection, accidents at work, cybersurveillance [4], fraud and cyber-attacks.

Forced teleworking corresponds to an organizational rearrangement [5] which upsets working conditions and brings about PSRs that should be anticipated. For a sustainable deployment of hybrid work, HR departments must rely on staff representatives and multiply the sources of information for employees. The lack of anticipation by HR departments may have changed the managerial relationship and the perception of teleworking [6]. The signing of a company agreement allows the rules of the game to be set and establishes a protective normative framework for the employee. Since telework is a quality of life at work issue, it can be considered and negotiated on this occasion. (Diard Dufour 2021).

In addition, employers who are currently facing a talent shortage can also use telework as a strategy, in line with CSR. Companies faced with numerous resignations and contractual terminations (DARES 2021) have every interest in communicating on this point. Externally or internally, it seems relevant to develop the employer brand in this way, a real HR marketing tool that allows you to differentiate yourself and offering teleworking is an excellent lever for attracting people and building loyalty!


[1] « Le télétravail en France, situation actuelle, perspectives de développement et aspects juridiques ».



[4] Diard, Hachard, Laroutis, à paraitre

[5] Diard et al 2021


Release date: Mercredi 4 Mai 2022

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